ARRIVAL OF BRITISHERS IN INDIA
It all started with the arrival of Vasco Da Gama in Calicat (Kerala) on 20th May 1498. After his arrival India started trade links with Europe and Britishers came to India in 1600 to trade the items like silk, tea and cotton. In 1601, they started the East India Company and at that time no one knows that it would change the history of India.
In 1614, Jahangir was the Mughal emperor of Hindustan. Sir Thomas Roy visited the court of Jahangir to secure the East India company site for factories and so he got the permission for setting up the factories. As a result East India Company set up factories at Ahmedabad, Broach and Agra. And later they expand themselves from one state to the other.
WHY INDIA GOT INDEPENDENCE IN THE MIDNIGHT OF 15th AUGUST 1947 ?
- Why 1947 : By the end of World War II (in 1945), Britishers were financially very weak.
- Why 15th August : Lord Mountbatten (Commander of Allied Forces) decided the date because he considered the date to be very lucky for him. And the reason behind that is, after World War II, the Japanese Army surrendered and the day was 15th August 1945.
- Why Midnight : As per Indian astrologers, 15th August 1947 was an “unlucky & unholy” date according to their astrological calculations. But Lord Mountbatten was resolute on 15th of August (as it was lucky date for him). As a mutual decision, astrologers recommended the midnight between 14th of August and 15th of August to satisfy both because according to Hindu calendar, the day starts at sunrise and it is 12 am as per English calendar.
WHY PAKISTAN CELEBRATE THEIR INDEPENDENCE DAY ON 14th AUGUST ?
The actual Independence day for Pakistan is 15th August 1947 only as India have, but In 1948, a propitious date of Islamic calendar, concurred with it (that is 27 Ramadan). So Pakistan decided to celebrate 14th of August 1947 as their Independence day.
SOME MORE INTERESTING FACTS
- Britishers rule India from 1600 to 1947. But Indians realise the value of their independence in 1857. So the first movement for independence against Britishers started in 1857. This movement was initiated by Mangal Pandey, He was an Indian soldier in East India Company.
- During the Britisher rule, India had 562 princely states (states with local ruler or king). And the most popular princely states at that time were Jammu and Kashmir, Baroda, Gwalior, Hyderabad, Cochin and Mysore.
- Indian freedom fighters were exiled to Cellular Jail located in Port Blair (Andaman and Nicobar Islands off India’s eastern coast) for punishment
As it was a crime according to Britishers to ask for freedom by Indians.
- Until 1911, when the regiment moved to Delhi, Calcutta was the capital of India, later renamed as Kolkata.
- There are many freedom fighters in the history of India who were very young. But the youngest of them was Khudiram Bose (1889-1908) from West Bengal. He was just 18 years 8 months and 8 days old when he was hanged by the Britishers.
- In 1920, Mahatma Gandhi started the master plan of Non Co-operation movement against Britishers.
- In March 1930, Mahatma Gandhi marched starting from the city of Ahmedabad to Dandi, covering a distance of 250 miles. Popularly known as Dandi March.
- Our National Anthem was sung during a meeting of the Indian National Congress Party in Kolkata on 27th December 1911.
- Rabindranath Tagore (who wrote the National Anthem) is the first Indian to win a Nobel Prize.
- In 1943, Subhash Chandra Bose founded the Indian National Army for the freedom against Britishers.
- Britishers agreed to a peaceful transfer of power in 1947.
- Dr. Rajendra Prasad was the first president of India.
- India’s constitution is the longest written constitution in the world, which was written by Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar.
- There are few more countries who celebrate their independence day on 15th of August. The countries are South Korea, Bahrain and Congo.
- Pingali Venkayya designed our Indian flag. And the “Dharma chakra” in the middle represents a wheel of law.
Freedom in the Mind, Faith in the Words, Pride in our Souls, Lets salute those great men, who made this possible.